Tail recursion

Tail recursion is a special way of writing recursive functions such that a compiler can optimize the recursion away and implement the algorithm as a loop instead. This is not because loops are inherently faster, but because every function call generally incurs the cost of a new stack frame in which it executes, sometimes leading to the dreaded stack overflow - where the beloved site of the same name, gets its name. Let's investigate how this works.

5 min read


By Tarjei Skjærset


December 12, 2019

But first we need to consider what recursion is and which functions are tail recursive and which are not. A function is said to be recursive if it is defined in terms of itself. Not only is recursion a natural and elegant solution for many problems, but in pure functional languages such as Elm and Haskell, there is simply no other way to express looping. As is customary when thinking about recursion, we will look at the factorial function. In mathematics we might see a definition such as n! = n * (n-1) * ... * 2 * 1. If the author cares to define the same function recursively you might see

n! = n * (n-1)!    if n > 0
n! = 1             if n = 0

Notice how the definition is made of two parts, a recursive part and a base-case part. This translates nicely to programming. In a functional language we might define the factorial function like the following.

let rec factorial n =
    match n with
    | 0 -> 1
    | n -> n * factorial (n-1)

The syntax is slightly different, but the structure is suprisingly similar. This function is however not tail recursive, it is merely recursive.

A slightly re-written version, which is tail recursive, might look like the follwing.

let rec factorial acc n =
    match n with
    | 0 -> acc
    | n -> factorial (acc * n) (n-1)

This definition is mostly the same, with the addition of a new parameter acc, short for accumulator. Introducing an accumulator is often necessary to be able to rewrite a function to be tail recursive. Annoyingly, this version has to be called with an initial value of acc=1, so for instance 5! would look like factorial 1 5.

The crucial difference between these definitions, however, is that the recursive call to factorial in this new definition is in "tail position". In a sense, the last operation that is performed in the body of the function definition, is to call itself. This is what allows the compiler to replace the function call with a loop instruction and reuse the same stack frame - because there is no more computation to be done in this stack frame after the recursive call. When it returns, all we do is return that answer. In which case we might as well return the answer directly.

Maybe this becomes more clear if we take a look at the same two definitions re-written more verbosely, using intermediary variable names and if statements, instead of the more terse mathematics-like syntax above.

let rec factorial n =
    if n = 0
    then 1
      let rest = factorial (n-1)
      n * rest
let rec factorial acc n =
    if n = 0
    then acc
      let sofar = acc * n
      let next = n - 1
      factorial sofar next

The important difference is that in the first definition there is more work to be done after the recursive call, namely the multiplication n * rest, while in the second definition, all the work happens before.

One way I like to think about this, is in a mutable way. I think of the last line factorial sofar next as an instruction to go back to the top of the function and bind acc to this new value sofar and n to next. Whenever n == 0 and it is time to break out of this looping recursion, we simply return the latest value of acc directly to the original caller of the factorial function.

In fact, this is precisely how Clojure implements tail recursion. Instead of detecting it automatically, Clojure forces you to use a special syntax with the special keywords loop and recur. Here is a Clojure implementation.

(defn factorial [n]
  (loop [acc 1
         n n]
    (if (= n 0)
      (recur (* acc n) (dec n)))))

Again we see the same structure, only expressed using a different syntax.


In many popular languages such as Python and JavaScript there is no implementation of the language which implements tail recursion, so even if you write your functions in a tail recursive style, it has no effect.

We can however implement it ourselves if we want to do many and deep recursions, without blowing the stack, using a technique known as trampolining. In this technique we write our functions in a tail recursive style, but instead of evaluating our function recursively before returning, we instead return the function we want called and the argument we want to call it with. Then we wrap this in a loop which is responsible for calling it repeatedly, until the function signals that it is done. We signal this by returning a special value, such as undefined, instead of the function, when we reach the base case.

Here is an implementation in JS.

const factorial = ([acc, n]) => {
  if (n === 0) {
    return [undefined, acc];

  return [factorial, [acc * n, n - 1]];

const trampoline = (f0) => (x0) => {
  let f = f0;
  let x = x0;

  while (f !== undefined) {
    [f, x] = f(x);

  return x;

const fact = trampoline(factorial);

fact can now be called with [1, 5] to evalueate the factorial of 5. One thing to note about this example is the use of two-element lists to represent tuples. The return value of factorial is a tuple of the function reference (or undefined) and a tuple of the parameters to the function. The parameters of the function is the accumulator and the current value to compute the factorial of.

Notice also the destructuring of f and x in the while loop, which also re-assigns the variables of the same names. For every iteration of the loop, x is the next set of parameters the function will be called with. When the loop is finished and the recursion done, the value of x is the final value of the computation, the logical return value of the recursive function.