Content Security Policy

Use Content Security Policy (CSP) headers to prevent loading of untrusted resources and mitigate cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks

3 min read


By Henrik Walker Moe


December 14, 2018

Did you know that your website might be at risk of loading untrusted external scripts? If your website doesn't explicitly trust the sources for all of its JavaScript, CSS, images etc., an attacker might be able to exploit this vulnerability by injecting a malicious script and possibly extract sensitive information from your website and your users.

CSP is a built-in browser security feature that is designed to prevent this "attack-vector" and is luckily one of the low-hanging fruits you can apply to secure your site.


Before moving ahead let's define a few key concepts in this article.


An attacker exploits a vulnerability by using a technical approach or method to access/inject/scan assets. This approach is often referred to as a vector. There might be one or more vectors for any given vulnerability, varying in difficulty to execute.


If your website's webserver hosts your JavaScript, CSS, images etc. then those are "own origin" or "self origin".

If your website uses third-party resources then those have "external origins".

CSP's directives supports self for own origins and URLs for external origins.

Get started

Your server should return the HTTP response header:

Content-Security-Policy: <directives>

The header is made up of one or more directives (Directive Reference) for trusting source origins for JavaScript (script-src), CSS (style-src), fonts (font-src), frames (frame-src) and more.

"Server-side configuration will vary depending on your server. Helmet for Express.js is a great option for those running a JavaScript/Node stack."

If you want to start with just trusting your own resources, use:

Content-Security-Policy: default-src 'self'

This tells your browser "hey, just load resources from my own domain/origin.". This mitigates Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attacks where an attacker is trying to exploit a vulnerability on your website by injecting a script into your website from e.g. http://www.evil.com/evil.js.

Go to Content-Security-Policy.com or MDN to learn more about other types of directives and their use.

Advanced techniques

Report CSP-violations

When a browser attempts to load a resource but is blocked by the CSP-rules, it can report the CSP-violation by posting to a URL using the report-uri directive:

Content-Security-Policy: report-uri '/some-url'

This lets you identify if someone's attempting something malicious or if you just forgot to whitelist one of your resources. Either way it's a useful tool to monitor your CSP-rules in production.

You need to implement a back-end to consume the report or use an external service, e.g. report-uri as a service.


A cryptographic nonce (number used once) can be used to make exemptions to your CSP-rules. By generating a unique one-time use value on the server-side and providing it to the front-end, you can trust that the content you are allowing to pass-through your CSP-rules is yours and trusted.

Using just unsafe-inline as a broad catch-all method of allowing all inline JavaScript (or CSS for that matter) is not advisable:

Content-Security-Policy: script-src 'unsafe-inline';

A better way of making exemptions is to provide a value to the nonce attribute on the <script> blocks that are the inline JavaScript you need to whitelist:

  1. Generate the random one-time use nonce value server-side
  2. Provide the value in your Document Object Model (DOM) <script> block as the nonce attribute value:
<script nonce="2726c7f26c">var inline = 1;</script>
  1. Add it to your CSP-rule:
Content-Security-Policy: script-src 'nonce-2726c7f26c';

As long as the two nonce values match it will not be possible to inject JavaScript that doesn't have 2726c7f26c as nonce value.

Remember to re-generate the value per page-load and keep the nonce value random.

Another nonce technique is to use SHA256 to hash the inline JavaScript (Hashes).